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2015

nine_340x427.jpgBrain Development

  • is highly concerned about fairness
  • may be a perfectionist
  • uses reference books with increasing skill
  • becomes immersed in a hobby or project, then drops it for another
  • generally follows instructions
  • is developing personal standards of right and wrong
  • accelerated growth of the prefrontal cortex continues
  • organization for memory continues
  • organization and logic of thought increases
  • capable of concrete problem-solving
  • shows interest in reading fictional stories, magazines, and how-to books
  • may develop special interest in collections or hobbies
  • fantasizes and daydreams about the future
  • enjoys planning and organizing tasks
  • becomes more product and goal oriented
  • has great ideas and intentions but has difficulty following through
  • enjoys games with more complex rules
  • from 8-9 children learn best through positive feedback due to the development of their cognitive controls centre in the brain, meaning negative feedback, or learning from your mistakes, remains a challenge

 

Inside the Brain

  • the brain strengthens its ability to learn as myelination of fibres speeds associations between senses and ideas
  • some research suggests by age 8 or 9, synaptic growth in some areas of the brain will be limited compared to the early years and will continue to be throughout life
  • children are no longer learning to read but are reading to learn

 

Emotional Development

  • becomes self-absorbed and introspective
  • tends to be critical of self
  • begins to see that parents and authority figures can make mistakes and are not always right
  • often likes rules, rituals, secret codes and made-up languages
  • has better control of anger
  • shows interest in opposite sex by teasing, joking, showing off
  • tends to see things are right or wrong, with no room for difference of opinion
  • takes comfort in knowing others experience similar troubling feelings

 

Social Development

  • has ideas and interests independent from parents
  • does not like anything "different"
  • enjoys being a member of a club
  • has increased interest in competitive sports
  • may belittle or defy adult authority
  • prefers spending time with friends than with parents
  • may sometimes be verbally cruel to classmates with harsh ‘put downs’ and snide remarks
  • wants to talk, dress, and act just like friends
  • is involved in informal clubs and small groups of the same sex
  • begins to just sit and talk with friends

 

Physical Development

  • has increased body strength and hand dexterity
  • shows improved coordination and reaction time
  • girls are generally as much as two years ahead of boys in physical maturity
  • girls may begin to menstruate
  • acquires greater small muscle coordination
  • has increasing dexterity
  • favours active, highly charged games and sports
  • wants to excel in sports and recreational skills
  • becomes more interested in clothing and appearance
  • laughs at bathroom humor

As every child is unique and there is a wide range of what’s ‘normal’ at every age, it’s important to remember these lists are guidelines only. If you are concerned about your child’s development, see your doctor.

Sources: AboutKidsHealth, The Hospital for Sick Children, Health A-Z, Developmental Stages, Ontario Ministry of Child and Youth Services, Ontario Early Years Centres: A Place for Parents and Their Children,The Developing Brain: Birth to Age Eight, by Marilee Sprenger, Your Child’s Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning from Birth to Adolescence, by Jane M. Healy, Ages and Stages, by Lesia Oesterreich, M.S.,extension human development specialist, Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University and “Learning from mistakes only happens after age 12, study suggests,” from Science Daily, Sept. 27, 2008.

growing_up_digital_644x362.jpgBrain Development

  • is eager to learn and master new skills
  • is proud of doing things well
  • is concerned about personal capabilities
  • has internalized standards of right and wrong to some degree
  • children are no longer learning to read but are reading to learn
  • shows interest in reading fictional stories, magazines, and how-to books
  • may develop special interest in collections or hobbies
  • fantasizes and daydreams about the future
  • enjoys planning and organizing tasks
  • becomes more product and goal oriented
  • has great ideas and intentions but has difficulty following through
  • enjoys games with more complex rules

 

Inside the Brain

  • accelerated growth of the prefrontal cortex continues
  • organization for memory continues
  • the brain strengthens its ability to learn as myelination of fibres speeds associations between senses and ideas

 

Emotional Development

  • fluctuates between dependent child and independent pre-teen
  • becomes increasingly self-conscious
  • begins to see that parents and authority figures can make mistakes and are not always right
  • often likes rules, rituals, secret codes and made-up languages
  • has better control of anger
  • shows interest in opposite sex by teasing, joking, showing off
  • tends to see things are right or wrong, with no room for difference of opinion

 

Social Development

  • does not want to be "different"
  • confides constantly in best friend
  • seeks approval for being "good" from significant people
  • becomes preoccupied with the opposite sex
  • enjoys being a member of a club
  • has increased interest in competitive sports
  • may belittle or defy adult authority
  • prefers spending time with friends than with parents
  • may sometimes be verbally cruel to classmates with harsh ‘put downs’ and snide remarks
  • relates to peer group intensely and abides by group decisions
  • succumbs to peer pressure more readily
  • continues to participate in small groups of same sex
  • can be fickle

 

Physical Development

  • has increased body strength and hand dexterity
  • shows improved coordination and reaction time
  • girls are generally as much as two years ahead of boys in physical maturity
  • girls may begin to menstruate
  • is energetic and spirited
  • physical growth and development varies enormously among this age group
  • is usually awkward
  • strives to be physically fit
  • is fascinated with how the body works
  • continues to revel in bathroom humor
  • may be curious about drugs, alcohol, and tobacco

As every child is unique and there is a wide range of what’s ‘normal’ at every age, it’s important to remember these lists are guidelines only. If you are concerned about your child’s development, see your doctor.

Sources: AboutKidsHealth, The Hospital for Sick Children, Health A-Z, Developmental Stages, Ontario Ministry of Child and Youth Services, Ontario Early Years Centres: A Place for Parents and Their Children,The Developing Brain: Birth to Age Eight, by Marilee Sprenger, Your Child’s Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning from Birth to Adolescence, by Jane M. Healy, Ages and Stages, by Lesia Oesterreich, M.S.,extension human development specialist, Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University and “Learning from mistakes only happens after age 12, study suggests,” from Science Daily, Sept. 27, 2008.

12_yr_old_500x345.jpgBrain Development

  • has an increasing attention and concentration span
  • strives to succeed
  • has strong opinions
  • begins to understand the motives behind the behaviour of another
  • children begin to manipulate abstract ideas
  • shows interest in reading fictional stories, magazines, and how-to books
  • may develop special interest in collections or hobbies
  • fantasizes and daydreams about the future
  • enjoys planning and organizing tasks
  • becomes more product and goal oriented
  • has great ideas and intentions but has difficulty following through
  • enjoys games with more complex rules

 

Inside the Brain

  • due to continued growth of their cognitive control centers, children may not yet be able to learn from negative feedback (e.g. learn from their mistakes)
  • from now into adulthood, the prefrontal cortex of the frontal lobes, often called the ‘brain’s brain,’ is a major focus of growth
  • while the first ten years of life are dedicated to the development of sensory lobes, the second ten years show great development of executive functions in the frontal lobe of the brain

 

Emotional Development

  • may be experiencing sudden, dramatic, emotional changes associated with puberty
  • mature one moment, immature the next
  • begins to see that parents and authority figures can make mistakes and are not always right
  • often likes rules, rituals, secret codes and made-up languages
  • has better control of anger
  • shows interest in opposite sex by teasing, joking, showing off
  • tends to see things are right or wrong, with no room for difference of opinion
  • tends to conceal feelings
  • is hard on self and ultra-sensitive to criticism

 

Social Development

  • wants parental assistance, but may resist when offered
  • is critical of parents
  • is concerned with prestige and popularity
  • likes to belong to a group and be like others
  • enjoys being a member of a club
  • has increased interest in competitive sports
  • may belittle or defy adult authority
  • prefers spending time with friends than with parents
  • may sometimes be verbally cruel to classmates with harsh ‘put downs’ and snide remarks
  • becomes quite faddish
  • spends about twice as much time on weekends with friends as with parents
  • friendships may change due to different levels of maturity
  • is acutely aware of the opposite sex

 

Physical Development

  • has increased body strength and hand dexterity
  • shows improved coordination and reaction time
  • girls are generally as much as two years ahead of boys in physical maturity
  • girls may begin to menstruate
  • may begin to grow rapidly
  • may look out of proportion
  • may have an appetite that fluctuates sharply
  • may tire easily and appear lazy (growth spurts drain energy)
  • is preoccupied with, and self-conscious about, appearance
  • enjoys observing or participating in competitive sports
  • is keenly interested in learning about body changes
  • may be curious about drugs, alcohol, and tobacco

As every child is unique and there is a wide range of what’s ‘normal’ at every age, it’s important to remember these lists are guidelines only. If you are concerned about your child’s development, see your doctor.

Sources: AboutKidsHealth, The Hospital for Sick Children, Health A-Z, Developmental Stages, Ontario Ministry of Child and Youth Services, Ontario Early Years Centres: A Place for Parents and Their Children,The Developing Brain: Birth to Age Eight, by Marilee Sprenger, Your Child’s Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning from Birth to Adolescence, by Jane M. Healy, Ages and Stages, by Lesia Oesterreich, M.S.,extension human development specialist, Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University and “Learning from mistakes only happens after age 12, study suggests,” from Science Daily, Sept. 27, 2008.